英语特殊句型之“存在句”

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所属分类:小学英语资料

There be 句型是英语中常用句型, 意思是“有”,表示“人或事物的存在”或“某地有某物”。There在此结构中是引导词,已经没有副词“那里”的含义。There be 句型的构成形式一般为“There is/are + 某物/人 +某地/时”,表示某地/时有某物/人。

英语特殊句型之“存在句”

there be句型中的there为引导词,无词义;be为谓语动词,根据情况可以有单复数的变化,也可以有不同的时态变化;there be后面的名词为句子主语。表示某处存在有某人或某物是存在句最基本的用法,在实际运用中,它可以有更广的用法。

There are not enough people to do the job. / There are a lot of things I’d like to ask you.

这些个句子中的there be句型并不具体表明某处存在有某事物,可视为there be句型基本结构的延伸用法。

1、there be的谓语动词的选择

主谓一致:若there be只有一个主语,谓语的数则取决于该主语的数;若有几个主语并列,则通常是与靠近的主语保持一致。 如:There is a bus stop close to the school.

但是注意:在非正式场合,there’s 往往可以用来代替复数形式there are 用于复数名词前。

There’s lots of cars on the road these days.

2、There be 句型的时态问题

there be结构的时态由其中的谓语动词be来体现,它可以有一般现在时、一般将来时、一般过去时、现在完成时、过去完成时、过去将来时多种时态形式。

There is nothing to be done now. / There’s going to be trouble.

There wasn’t any change in him. / There have been many such accidents.

There had been many such occasions. / There would be endless rows if I was at home.

3、There be句式与连用情态动词连用时

there be结构有时可以与情态动词can / could 、may / might、must、should、ought to 、used to 连用,此时情态动词应放在there与be之间。如 : There must be a mistake.

4、there be句式的特殊情况(谓语位置发生移动,产生倒装)

有时根据句子的需要,我们也可将there be中的动词be 换为 live, remain, seem, appear, exist, stand, lie, come等。如:

There comes a bus. 汽车来了, There goes the bell ,铃声响了

5、There be 否定式与疑问式

否定式:there be结构的否定式通常应将否定词置于动词be之后。若谓语中包括有助动词或情态动词,通常将否定词置于助动词与情态动词之后。如:

There can’t be so many mistakes.

疑问式:there be结构的疑问式通常应将否定词置于动词be之后。如:

若谓语中包括有助动词或情态动词,通常将助动词或情态动词移至句首构成疑问式。如:

Has there been an accident?

there be的非谓语形式there be结构的非谓语形式有两种,即there being和there to be。

there to be 结构:主要用作动词宾语。可接该结构可用作动词的动词不多,常见的like, prefer, hate, want, mean, intend, expect, consider等。如:

I don’t want there to be any more trouble.注意,在let there be结构中,动词be不带to。如:

Let there be no mistake about it.

另外,there to be 结构还可用作介词for的宾语。注意了,用作介词宾语一般用there being,但用作介词for的宾语时,却要用there to be。比较:

It was too late for there to be any buses. / They asked for there to be another meeting.

there be+名词+非谓语动词

there be+宾语+现在分词:现在分词表示主动关系,同时表示动作正在进行。如:There is someone waiting for him.

有时现在分词不表示动作在进行,而表示一种状态或现状。如:There’s a piano standing against the wall.

正如come, go, leave, move 等表示位置移动的短暂性动词的进行时态可表示将来意义一样,“there be+名词+现在分词”也可以表示将来意义。如:There are ten people coming to dinner.

there be+宾语+过去分词:过去分词表示一种被动关系,同时表示动作已经发生。如:There was nobody injured.

有时过去分词也可表示一种状态(可转换成被动结构)。如:There were some old men seated (=who were seated) in the back.

there be+宾语+不定式:不定式通常表示动作尚未发生。如:There was nobody to look after the child.

但有时含义有差别——不定式用主动式可视为其前省略了for sb,用被动式可视为其后省略了by sb。

There is nothing to do. 无事可做。(含有无聊之意)

There is nothing to be done. 不能做什么了。(指没有办法了)

另外,需要注意 : 当其中的宾语与其后的不定式为被动关系时,可用主动表被动,也可用被动式。There is much work to do [to be done].

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